blitzkrieg meaning in german

[24] After the invasion of Poland, the British press commonly used the term to describe German successes in that campaign, something Harris called "a piece of journalistic sensationalism – a buzz-word with which to label the spectacular early successes of the Germans in the Second World War". Blitzkrieg is a noun, verb (used with object) by form. Blitzkrieg (German: ‘lightning war’), military tactic calculated to create psychological shock and resultant disorganization in enemy forces through the employment of surprise, speed, and superiority in materiel or firepower. Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them. In 1939–40, 45 percent of the army was 40 years old and 50 percent of the soldiers had only a few weeks' training. ), from Proto-Germanic *blikkatjan, from PIE root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn." The word 'blitzkrieg' is surely from German, but together with its clipped form 'blitz', which is not directly imported from the German 'Blitz', it has also a figurative meaning, so I wonder how this word can be translated into German, because as far as I know Blitzkrieg in German has only a literal sense. [16][17] Blitzkrieg as used by Germany had considerable psychological, or "terror" elements,[c] such as the Jericho Trompete, a noise-making siren on the Junkers Ju 87 dive-bomber, to affect the morale of enemy forces. At first, the German Blitzkrieg seemed to succeed. [41] The decisive Battle of Megiddo included concentration, surprise and speed; success depended on attacking only in terrain favoring the movement of large formations around the battlefield and tactical improvements in the British artillery and infantry attack. Directive control was a fast and flexible method of command. [77] As the end of the war approached, Germany also experienced critical shortages in fuel and ammunition stocks as a result of Anglo-American strategic bombing and blockade. In it he explained the theories of the tank men and defended them. Flexibility was the Luftwaffe's strength in 1939–1941. Pronunciation of blitzkrieg with 1 audio pronunciation, 1 meaning, 1 translation and more for blitzkrieg. [111][153] Rather the German concept of wars of movement and concentrated force were seen in wars of Prussia and the German wars of unification. By imposing, retrospectively, his own perceptions of mobile warfare upon the shallow concept of blitzkrieg, he "created a theoretical imbroglio that has taken 40 years to unravel. [52], The Reichswehr and the Red Army began a secret collaboration in the Soviet Union to evade the Treaty of Versailles occupational agent, the Inter-Allied Commission. This document, which the Luftwaffe adopted, rejected Giulio Douhet's theory of terror bombing. The traditional meaning of blitzkrieg is that of German tactical and operationalmethodology in the first half of the Second World War, that is often hailed as a new method of warfare. After the war Liddell Hart imposed his own perceptions, after the event, claiming that the mobile tank warfare practised by the Wehrmacht was a result of his influence. If it were instead hilly, wooded, marshy, or urban, armour would be vulnerable to infantry in close-quarters combat and unable to break out at full speed. Clausewitz proposed the “concentration principle,” the idea that concentrating forces against an enemy, and making a single blow against a carefully chosen target (the Schwerpunkt, or “center of gravity”) was more effective than dispersing those forces. This style of warfare brought manoeuvre back to the fore, and placed an emphasis on the offensive. At the basis of this...there is not only the massive use of heavy armoured divisions or cooperation between them and airplanes, but the creation of disorder in the enemy's rear by means of parachute raids. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to … [82], Despite the term blitzkrieg being coined by journalists during the Invasion of Poland of 1939, historians Matthew Cooper and J. P. Harris have written that German operations during it were consistent with traditional methods. The Luftwaffe deployed squadrons of fighters, dive bombers and transport aircraft as the Condor Legion. Translation for 'Blitzkrieg' in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. Matthew Cooper wrote that, [t]hroughout the Polish Campaign, the employment of the mechanised units revealed the idea that they were intended solely to ease the advance and to support the activities of the infantry....Thus, any strategic exploitation of the armoured idea was still-born. Then in April 1940, Germany invaded neutral Norway, seizing the capital, Oslo, and the country’s main ports with a series of surprise attacks. [51] In 2002 H. P. Willmott had noted that deep battle contained two important differences: it was a doctrine of total war (not of limited operations), and rejected decisive battle in favour of several large, simultaneous offensives. None of these forms is sufficient to describe the universal importance of the term and the concept of Schwerpunktprinzip. "[86], The German invasion of France, with subsidiary attacks on Belgium and the Netherlands, consisted of two phases, Operation Yellow (Fall Gelb) and Operation Red (Fall Rot). "If the tanks succeed, then victory follows", he wrote. [citation needed] Additionally, units could be halted by mud (thawing along the Eastern Front regularly slowed both sides) or extreme snow. [78], German volunteers first used armour in live field conditions during the Spanish Civil War of 1936. The word blitzkrieg means "rapid attack" in German, from blitz, or "lightning," paired with krieg, or "war." [81], During the war, the Condor Legion undertook the bombing of Guernica which had a tremendous psychological effect on the populations of Europe. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Under these conditions it was difficult for German commanders to employ the "armoured idea", if at all. After blitzkrieg failed in the Soviet invasion, however, Hitler and German military leaders distanced themselves from the concept, claiming it was an invention of their enemies; Hitler himself denied he had ever used the word. 2016 war Captain Poon als Gitarrist mit Marky Ramone's Blitzkrieg auf Tour. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could fully mobilize. Und Baku kann sich auf diesen Blitzkrieg nicht verlassen. Colonel Charles de Gaulle advocated concentration of armour and aeroplanes. [58], According to David A.Grossman, by the 12th Battle of Isonzo (October–November 1917), while conducting a light-infantry operation, Rommel had perfected his maneuver-warfare principles, which were the very same ones that were applied during the Blitzkrieg against France in 1940 (and repeated in the Coalition ground offensive against Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War). The French armies were much reduced in strength and the confidence of their commanders shaken. When the Allies counter-attacked at Arras using the heavily armoured British Matilda I and Matilda II tanks, a brief panic was created in the German High Command. J. P. Harris and Robert M. Citino point out that the Germans had always had a marked preference for short, decisive campaigns – but were unable to achieve short-order victories in First World War conditions. It happened because the German aircraft industry lacked the experience to build a long-range bomber fleet quickly, and because Hitler was insistent on the very rapid creation of a numerically large force. Patrick. [97], In July 1943 the Wehrmacht conducted Operation Zitadelle (Citadel) against a salient at Kursk that was heavily defended by Soviet troops. Robert Watt (2008) wrote that blitzkrieg has little in common with Soviet deep battle. The first European general to introduce rapid movement, concentrated power and integrated military effort was Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus during the Thirty Years' War. From February 13 to February 15, 1945, during the final months of World War II (1939-45), Allied forces bombed the historic city of Dresden, located in eastern Germany. [41], Norman Stone detects early blitzkrieg operations in offensives by the French generals Charles Mangin and Marie-Eugène Debeney in 1918. It was an innovative military technique first used by the Germans in World War Two and was a tactic based on speed and surprise. The French president of the Ministerial Council, Reynaud, attributed the collapse in a speech on 21 May 1940: The truth is that our classic conception of the conduct of war has come up against a new conception. The transformation from the stalemate of the First World War into tremendous initial operational and strategic success in the Second, was partly the employment of a relatively small number of mechanised divisions, most importantly the Panzer divisions, and the support of an exceptionally powerful air force. Its goal according to Führer Directive 21 (18 December 1940) was "to destroy the Russian forces deployed in the West and to prevent their escape into the wide-open spaces of Russia. According to the Bible the end times will come very quickly, just like the German Blitzkrieg on it's unknowing opponents. The French were hard pressed to organise any sort of counter-attack and were continually ordered to form new defensive lines and found that German forces had already by-passed them and moved on. [126][127] The purpose of the blitzkrieg economy was to allow the German people to enjoy high living standards in the event of hostilities and avoid the economic hardships of the First World War. Operation Barbarossa helped confirm that armour effectiveness and the requisite aerial support were dependent on weather and terrain. But in reality, though the word “blitzkrieg” had been used in German military writings before World War II to describe a short conflict, as opposed to a drawn-out war of attrition, it was never officially adopted as a military doctrine. In German, what does the word 'Blitzkrieg' mean? [3][6] During the Invasion of Poland, Western journalists adopted the term blitzkrieg to describe this form of armoured warfare. The demands of the war economy reduced the amount of spending in non-military sectors to satisfy the demand for the armed forces. ‘During World War II, the German blitzkrieg demonstrated a major change in the conduct of warfare.’ ‘The idea of lightning strikes, blitzkriegs, and selective engagement per se is nothing new, going way back into military history.’ ‘The Germans attacked in the best blitzkrieg style, armour supported by aircraft.’ [27] In early January 1942, Hitler dismissed it as "Italian phraseology". The German blitzkrieg strategy was allegedly intended, in the endeavor for world rule, to bridge the deep chasm between far-reaching wartime objectives and inadequate power potential by overwhelming the enemies, one after the other, in a series of individual, successive campaigns that would last only a short time. Among them, Guderian claimed, was Chief of the General Staff Ludwig Beck (1935–38), whom he alleged was sceptical that armoured forces could be decisive. The name means "lightning war". Willmott writes that, "Many examples of the experiences and losses suffered by German formations moving up to the front are well known. [64] Through Schwerpunktbildung, the German army could achieve superiority at the Schwerpunkt, whether attacking or defending, to turn local success at the Schwerpunkt into the progressive disorganisation of the opposing force, creating more opportunities to exploit this advantage, even if numerically and strategically inferior in general. It would be wrong to include tanks in infantry divisions; what was needed were armoured divisions which would include all the supporting arms needed to allow the tanks to fight with full effect. The Kesselschlacht 'cauldron battle' was a concentric attack on such pockets. "[85] Steven Zaloga wrote, "Whilst Western accounts of the September campaign have stressed the shock value of the panzer and Stuka attacks, they have tended to underestimate the punishing effect of German artillery on Polish units. Naveh described it as an "ad hoc solution" to operational dangers, thrown together at the last moment. Allied counter-attacks soon forced back the Germans, who abandoned much equipment for lack of fuel. Similarly in the military journals, emphasis centred on 'strategic' bombing. Like von Seeckt, de Gaulle concluded that France could no longer maintain the huge armies of conscripts and reservists which had fought World War I, and he sought to use tanks, mechanised forces and aircraft to allow a smaller number of highly trained soldiers to have greater impact in battle. [130], In the 1930s, Hitler had ordered rearmament programs that cannot be considered limited. Strategies based on manoeuvre have the inherent danger of the attacking force overextending its supply lines, and can be defeated by a determined foe who is willing and able to sacrifice territory for time in which to regroup and rearm, as the Soviets did on the Eastern Front (as opposed to, for example, the Dutch who had no territory to sacrifice). It is written as Faujī Hamlā in Roman Hindi. [34] Seeckt inspired a revision of Bewegungskrieg (maneuver warfare) thinking and its associated Auftragstaktik, in which the commander expressed his goals to subordinates and gave them discretion in how to achieve them; the governing principle was "the higher the authority, the more general the orders were", so it was the responsibility of the lower echelons to fill in the details. During the Battle of Dunkirk from May 26 to June 4, 1940, some 338,000 British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and other Allied troops were evacuated from Dunkirk to more, On July 20, 1944, during World War II (1939-45), a plot by senior-level German military officials to murder Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and then take control of his government failed when a bomb planted in a briefcase went off but did not kill the Nazi leader. Paradoxically, from that period onward it became its weakness. These new tools, combined with an emphasis on speed, mobility, focused attacks and encirclements, enabled the Wehrmacht to turn traditional military tactics into a devastatingly modern brand of warfare. Staff burden was reduced at the top and spread among tiers of command with knowledge about their situation. The term blitz (meaning lightning), from the term Blitzkrieg (meaning lightning war). He read Guderian's 1937 book Achtung – Panzer! Blitzkrieg is a term used to describe a method of offensive warfare designed to strike a swift, focused blow at an enemy using mobile, maneuverable forces, including armored tanks and air support. It is also significant that Germany's position in the centre of Europe to a large extent obviated the need to make a clear distinction between bombers suitable only for 'tactical' and those necessary for strategic purposes in the early stages of a likely future war. By the end of June, the French army had collapsed, and the nation sued for peace with Germany. During the First World War the German army used 1.4 million horses for transport and in the Second World War used 2.7 million horses; only ten percent of the army was motorised in 1940. Two generals, Debeney on the British right, and Mangin, to his right, began the tactics that were to become famous in 1940 as, 58 percent of prisoners died through neglect, starvation, or other causes associated with. Guderian's leadership was supported, fostered and institutionalised by his supporters in the Reichswehr General Staff system, which worked the Army to greater and greater levels of capability through massive and systematic Movement Warfare war games in the 1930s. [18][19] It is also common for historians and writers to include psychological warfare by using Fifth columnists to spread rumours and lies among the civilian population in the theatre of operations. During the Battle of Moscow, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative. [b] According to Frieser, in the context of the thinking of Heinz Guderian on mobile combined arms formations, blitzkrieg can be used as a synonym for modern maneuver warfare on the operational level. Hitler had intended for a rapid unlimited war to occur much later than 1939, but the Third Reich's aggressive foreign policy forced the Nazi state into war before it was ready. [40], In the Sinai and Palestine campaign, operations involved some aspects of what would later be called blitzkrieg. In such formation of all arms, the tanks must play primary role, the other weapons being subordinated to the requirements of the armour. [j] In 2000, Niklas Zetterling and Anders Frankson characterised only the southern pincer of the German offensive as a "classical blitzkrieg attack". James Corum wrote: Guderian expressed a hearty contempt for General Ludwig Beck, chief of the General Staff from 1935 to 1938, whom he characterized as hostile to ideas of modern mechanised warfare: [Corum quoting Guderian] "He [Beck] was a paralysing element wherever he appeared....[S]ignificantly of his way of thought was his much-boosted method of fighting which he called delaying defence". Years of trench warfare they had engaged in during the later years of the term is. 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